Chapter 22 study guide

22 Jan

1. The European intrusion into Asia was similar to that in Africa because they over imposed themselves, but the intrusion of Asia was different to that of Africa because slavery was not as prominent.  As we discussed in the last chapter when the Europeans came to Africa, they did not enter the interior of the continent right away.  This also occurred in Asia, they first took over in Mindanao and Luzon which are islands on the outskirts.  In these places they began to take over and effect the political systems as they did in Africa earlier.  However in Africa the kings were open to the Europeans due to their commercial dominance through companies such as the Dutch trading empire.  On the other hand the Asian rulers resented the imposition the Europeans brought and wished for isolation.  Also the idea of slavery did not play as big of a role with the Asian trade network as it did in the African trade network.


2. The European impact on Asian civilization during the period of early modern Western expansion was concentrated in the exterior of the continent.  Europeans were most influential in places such as Java, Luzon, and Mindanao.  These places were smaller and had less weapons therefore the Europeans were able to take over with more ease than in the highly populated and advanced mainlands such as Japan and China.  In Java the Treaty of Gijanti in 1757 reduced the power of the Javanese princes to vassals of the Dutch East India Company.  This kind of treaty shows the dominance of commercial and trade systems of the European forces in the exterior of the continent.  They influenced not only the trade but the politics when they introduced weapons such as guns.


3. The Portuguese trading empire was stretched thin, such as Malacca, a naval base on the Malay Peninsula, Goa, a colony in India, and Ormuz, a port on the Persian Gulf. In addition many Portuguese went out of Portugal to help further the interests of their home country. The empire became independent traders in defiance of the crown monopoly. It was already extremely weakened by the time the Dutch arrived. The Dutch focused more on developing a monopoly on the spice trade, rather than the Portuguese approach of just general Asian trade. They followed this path through the Dutch trading empire, which focused on developing a monopoly control on a limited amount of products, such as spice.


4. The Chinese and Japanese withdrew from the world in response to European expansion because they didn’t want their culture to be westernized. Their culture was one of isolation, as is evident with the withdrawal of Zhenghe expeditions, and the tendency of Chinese emperors to focus on development of their own internal state, Ieyasu played a similar role in Japan. Ieyasu concentrated on strengthening power at home rather, than the In addition, the School of National Learning furthered Japan’s indigenous culture, at the cost of foreign imports, fueling the withdrawal from Europe.


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