29 Jan

1. The Greek Revolution in the 1820’s was an important step in dissolving the Ottoman Empire. Italy, Germany, Spain and France also had rebellions during this time period. Belgium gained its independence. These movements constantly changed countries’ borders. Diplomatic relations turned into alliances – which quickly boiled down to two mains groups the triple alliance, between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, and the Triple Entente, between France, Britain, and Russia.

 

2. The Industrial Revolution had huge social consequences. It resulted in overcrowded cities, because workers had to live close to the factories. The population revolution also contributed to overcrowded cities. The cities weren’t equipped to handle the population influx, resulting in unsanitary conditions in the slums. The poor lived here. Middle-class families began moving out of the city into suburbs, a trend that continues today (class divisions based on where one lives).

Lower class groups demanded greater voice politically, such as the chartist movement and Luddite protests. Proletariats began to speak up. Also, government functions shifted. Many began building railroads, and taking interest in education.

 

3. In response to the social question, all Western governments introduced civil service exams to test applicants on the basis of talent alone. They began to extend regulatory apparatus, such as inspecting factory safety, hospital conditions. Schooling expanded, becoming mandatory up to age 12. These school systems boosted literacy levels to almost 95%. Welfare measures were introduced, supplementing church activities. These reforms were supported by revisionism, which believed that social success could be achieved through political institutions

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