Ch 24 Study Guide

2 Feb
  1. In the initial period, Europeans went overseas because they sought material things they could not produce themselves and because they felt threatened by powerful external enemies. They initially sought precious metal. From 1800 onwards, Europeans sought raw materials (metal, vegetable oils, dyes, cotton, and hemp) needed to feed their machines, instead of spiced and manufactured goods. In addition, religious conversion played a very small role in post-industrial imperialism.
  2. Tropical dependencies made up most of the Europeans empires. In these colonies, small numbers of Europeans ruled large populations of non-Western peoples. White Dominions accounted for a good portion of the land area but only a tiny portion of the population of global empires. Contested settler states, Europeans and indigenous peoples increasingly clashed over land rights, resource control, social status, and cultural differences. In both tropical dependencies and white dominions Europeans ruled, while in contested settler states the indigenous peoples did not accept European rule. However, all three are types of European colonies.
  3. 19th century imperialists transformed their methods of economic extraction by trying to instruct African and Asian peasants in scientific farming techniques. In addition,  Colonial bureaucrats and managers tried to compel colonized peoples more generally to work harder and more efficiently. Although a wide range of incentives were devised to expand crop production, colonized peoples were forced to produce the crops/raw materials that the Europeans wanted. Sometimes villagers were beaten if they couldn’t meet the production quota. These actions show the belief of white racial supremacy. The Europeans thought that they were better than the indigenous people, and therefore could force them to work.
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