Chapter 27 key questions

16 Feb
  1. The major difference between the industrialization of Russia and Japan was that there was little revolution in Japan. Japanese nationalism became a deep force, probably in Japan more than elsewhere, that played a unique role in justifying sacrifice and struggle in a national mission to preserve independence and dignity in a hostile world. Nationalism, along with firm police repression of dissent and the sweeping changes of the early Meiji rulers. In addition, Japanese industrialization began much after Russia, during the 1890’s. Similarities include social change. In Japan the samurai class was abolished and Russian serfs were emancipated. There was an overall trend for equality among peoples. In both countries, industrialization threatened the social hierarchies of both societies. In addition, both nations used territorial expansion as a means of mollifying the aristocracy and building support for the imperial government.
  2. Russia made important gains, but they did not satisfy growing Russian ambitions, and they also brought trouble. Russian diplomatic aspirations weren’t matched with hegemony increases. These simmering troubles cultivated in a 1904 war with Japan. Russian defeat led to massive protests, which resulted in the creation of a national parliament. The revolution was made possible by the rise of the intelligentsia, the class of articulate intellectuals. They started to become more active in politics, because they were increasingly unhappy with the Russian political situation. Mainly, the continuing dissatisfaction of both peasants and landowners spilled over to revolution.
  3. Latin America was still highly economically dependent on the West, whereas Russia and Japan could be considered as using Western influence but adapting it to fit their respective countries For example, Japan retained its traditional valves of obedience despite adapting Western technology. Likewise, Russia freed its serfs to match the greater equality found it the West, but they were still not granted political rights at a national level. This difference arose because Latin America had been under direct rule by the West. Their culture had been destroyed because of colonialism, which is why they could not seek to blend Western culture with their own like Japan and Russia.

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