Chapter 33 key questions

4 Apr


  1. Within Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia, during the time period after WWII there was much resistance of the native people to the European forces.  Even if the revolts were executed in peaceful means, such as Gandhi, or if they were handled with violence such as in Africa, the motives for revolt were still the same. European political, economic, and later cultural dominance forced the thinks and leaders of ancient centers of civilized development – from China and the Islamic heartlands to south Asia and Sudanic Africa – to reappraise their own beliefs, institutions, and traditions. However, reluctantly, many of these thinkers and politicians came to see that if their civilizations were to be revitalized, hard decisions would have to be made. They had to determine which elements in their own cultures could be preserved and which must be rejected. The also had to decide how much to borrow from the Europeans and what aspects of Western culture could be refused.
  2. World War One weakened the European claims of colonial dominance and World War Two crushed them. The fact that European colonial regimes had been built in collaboration with indigenous elite groups and depended for their survival on these groups, rendered them particularly vulnerable to growing challenges from within. In addition to internal forces that eroded the European colonial order, growing conflicts between the Western powers dealt heavy blows to the imperial edifice. World War I cast doubt on the Europeans’ claims that by virtue of their racial superiority they were the fittest of all people to rule the globe. The Europeans after WWII were left at a total economic disadvantage and had enough problems of their own within their homeland to be meddling in their colonial holds, which caused their loss of colonial dominance.
  3. After World War II, the major parties claiming Palestine were locked in a deadly stalemate. The Zionists were determined to carve out a Jewish state in the region. The Palestine Arabs and their allies in neighboring Arab lands were equally determined to transform Palestine into a multi-religious nation in which the position of the Arab majority would have to be endured. The Arab states that bordered Israel vehemently opposed the United Nation’s action, and engaged in warfare.  The British had been playing both fields by telling the Arabs they would have a free state after the war and at the same time telling the Zionists they would have a Jewish state. This sealed the hostility between Arabs and Israelis that has been the all-consuming issue in the region.

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