Ch 35 key questions

11 Apr

1. China and Vietnam differed from the rest of the other third world countries because they completely lost their traditional way of civilization whereas the others such as Africa and Asia kept their traditional ways. Both regions experienced some exposure to Western imperialism during the 19th century and Japan during the 20th century. By that century they had been reduced to economic dependency in the global trade network. They shared overpopulation problems and poverty as well as they both failed to industrialize.  China and Vietnam were able to maintain independence from the diplomatic systems of the United States and the Soviet Union and accepted a peasant-oriented Marxism while achieving great success in the raising of the status of women.  They accepted a peasant-oriented form of Marxism, achieved greater success in raising the status of women, and were able to maintain independence from the diplomatic systems of the United States and the Soviet Union. Both had a secular orientation; they lacked the Catholicism of Latin America or the religious focus provided by Islam and Hinduism. They emphasized the peasantry rather than an urban working class.

2. China had been exposed to the Western ideals whereas the Russians remained isolated and focused on one nation rule, which resulted in differences between their revolutions. Also the Chinese saw the peasants as very important and the Russians saw the urban workers as very important. Both revolutions had some people encouraging the Communists because of necessary change and nationalists opposing the new ways and pushing for older ideals. The Russian Revolution followed the lack of success during World War I; Russia had not been colonized by a European power. China had been exposed to Western imperialism. Lenin had imposed a system of revolution based on an urban proletariat; Chinese communists, especially Mao, emphasized the peasantry. Both countries had an insubstantial middle class to support liberal democratic experiments; both collectivized agriculture early in their revolutionary development. Both also had five-year industrialization plans, although Russia’s was much more successful than China’s. Mao, through his opposition to a technocratic elite, introduced programs aimed at destroying urbanized industrialization; the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution retarded economic development. Both regimes expanded into neighboring regions. The two regimes during their middle periods were dominated by charismatic leaders – Mao, Stalin. Both countries have introduced reforms and increased Westernization since the 1980s, but Russia’s reforms have gone much farther than China’s.

3.Women received many benefits and almost equality with the Communist victory but were still much dependent on their men, and required to uphold the household duties as mother and wife. Mao’s revolutionary social program included improvements in the social and economic status of women. The failure of the Nationalists to support women’s rights led many women to embrace the Communists. The Communist party, in contrast, used women as teachers, laborers, and even soldiers. Some women rose to positions of influence within the party. The Communist victory brought full legal equality to Chinese women and entry into the work force. As was often the case in other nations, women were still expected to fulfill traditional roles as wives and mothers within their households. Males continued to dominate the upper reaches of the party structure. Mao’s wife temporarily enjoyed exceptional political influence, but her position depended on her relationship to her husband.Mao, assisted by his wife Jiang Qing, was committed to the liberation of Chinese women. Guomindang efforts to reverse gains made by women during the early revolution caused many women to support the Communists. They worked in many occupations in Communist ranks. When the revolution triumphed women received legal equality. Women gained some freedom in selecting marriage partners and have been expected to work outside of the home. Traditional male attitudes persisted and made women labored both in and out of their homes. Males continued to dominate upper party levels.

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